APIs used:
  • XY=K  


Welcome to the fascinating world of Decentralized Finance (DeFi), where innovations like automated market makers (AMMs), pioneered by Uniswap, have revolutionized how we trade and interact with digital assets. This article will unravel the details behind AMMs, how they work, and Uniswap and its clones. We'll also explore how Covalent's xy=k suite of endpoints can empower developers to build an array of applications, bringing even more possibilities to the ever-expanding DeFi landscape. So, sit tight and let's embark on this DeFi adventure together!

First, let’s start with some math and the constant product formula, xy=k.

What is xy=k?

xy=k is a simple formula where the product of two variables (x and y) is always constant (k). Visually, the formula creates the following curve:

Image Source: Crypto Cutie

Suppose x represents Token A and y represents Token B in a pool, and any point on the curve represents the exchange rate between Tokens A and B in that pool. The curve shows the different possible combinations of quantities that satisfy the xy=k equation. As the quantity of Token A increases, the quantity of Token B must decrease to keep the product (k) constant. More importantly, what this curve demonstrates is that there is always an exchange rate available for any given quantity of Token A or B.

This simple formula is what powers innovation like AMMs.

Automated Market Makers (AMMs)

AMMs are decentralized exchanges defined by their use of pricing curves to automatically determine asset prices. AMMs are important for DeFi because they enable decentralized trading of digital assets without the need for centralized exchanges or order books where market makers manually set “bid” and “ask” prices for assets. Additionally, AMMs mean that there will always be a swap price available so that people can trade their assets. The price might be high in certain conditions, but this is in contrast to centralized financial services, which can withhold funds or stop all trading if they decide.

Uniswap is the AMM that pioneered the xy=k formula, allowing liquidity providers to deposit equal values of two assets into a liquidity pool. On Uniswap (V2 specifically), when a user wants to swap one asset for another, the AMM algorithm automatically calculates the appropriate exchange rate based on the current ratio of assets in the pool. As more users trade, the ratio of assets in the pool changes, affecting each asset's price.

Let’s take the example of a token pair of ETH and DAI. The xy=k equation would be:

ETH amount * DAI amount = k

Initially, the pool contains 10 ETH and 1,000 DAI, so the value of k is 10,000. If a trader wants to buy 1 ETH with DAI, the price quoted will be calculated as follows:

Buying 1 ETH means the pool will contain 9 ETH.

Since 9 ETH * (# DAI) = 10,000, the # DAI in our pool needs to be 1,111.11. This is 111.11 more DAI than currently in the pool

Hence the quoted price is 111.11 DAI / ETH

The difference between the natural pool price (i.e. 100 DAI / ETH) and the quoted price (111.11 DAI / ETH) is referred to as slippage. The larger the order (in any direction), the larger the slippage.

While the xy=k constant product market maker algorithm is widely used in DeFi, there are other types of AMMs that use different pricing algorithms. For example, Curve Finance is an AMM that uses a stableswap invariant designed specifically for stablecoins and aims to reduce slippage and improve capital efficiency. Another example is Balancer, which is an AMM that allows for customizable pools with multiple assets and varying weights. These alternatives provide different benefits and trade-offs compared to the xy=k model, catering to different use cases and user preferences.

Uniswap V2 Clones

Uniswap's success and open-source nature led to a surge of forks and clones as other developers sought to build upon or modify the original Uniswap code. In doing so, they could also leverage the existing user base and liquidity providers of Uniswap. Some of these clones introduced new features, improved upon existing ones, or altered tokenomics to differentiate themselves from Uniswap. Notable examples include:

  • SushiSwap - added a governance token (SUSHI) to incentivize liquidity providers and allowed users to vote on protocol changes.

  • PancakeSwap - a Binance Smart Chain-based DEX that emulated Uniswap's model with lower fees and faster transactions.

Uniswap remains a prominent player in the DeFi space. Still, as a result of the proliferation of clones, the DeFi ecosystem has become more diverse and competitive, offering users more options and opportunities to participate in decentralized finance.

Covalent’s xy=k AMM Data

Covalent's xy=k endpoints provide a comprehensive set of data related to AMMs that use the constant product market maker algorithm (clones). Developers can utilize this data to gain insights into these platforms and build a myriad of applications. Here's a brief overview of the data provided by each endpoint:

Get XY=K poolsRetrieves information on all xy=k liquidity pools for a specific Uniswap V2 clone, including detailed trading data such as volume, liquidity, swap counts, fees, and LP token prices.
Get XY=K pools by addressProvides details on a specific liquidity pool by its contract address, including volume, liquidity, and price.
Get XY=K address exchange balancesReturns the balances of tokens held by a specific address on a Uniswap V2 clone.
Get XY=K network exchange tokensLists all tokens available for trading on a specific Uniswap V2 clone.
Get XY=K supported DEXesReturns a list of all supported decentralized exchanges (DEXes) that use the xy=k algorithm.
Get XY=K single network exchange tokenRetrieves information on a specific token available for trading on a Uniswap V2 clone.
Get XY=K transactions for account addressProvides a list of all transactions executed by a specific account address on a Uniswap V2 clone, including token amounts and gas fees.
Get XY=K transactions for token addressReturns a list of all transactions involving a specific token on a Uniswap V2 clone.
Get XY=K transactions for exchangeRetrieves a list of all transactions executed on a specific Uniswap V2 clone.
Get XY=K ecosystem chart dataOffers historical data on various metrics for a specific Uniswap V2 clone, such as liquidity, volume, and token prices.
Get XY=K health dataProvides health data for a specific Uniswap V2 clone, including metrics like the total value locked (TVL), trading volume, and number of transactions.

These endpoints offer developers a rich dataset to analyze and monitor AMMs using the constant product market maker algorithm, enabling them to create various applications, such as market analysis tools, portfolio management tools, and DEX interfaces.

What Can You Build?

The xy=k endpoints power many different types of applications, some key examples being:

  1. Market analysis and research tools: Provide insights into liquidity and price trends, trade volumes, and other key metrics that can inform trading and investment decisions.

  2. Portfolio management tools: Track holdings across different Uniswap V2 clones, monitor performance, and adjust based on market trends.

  3. DEX interfaces and dashboards: Provide users with a user-friendly and intuitive way to interact with Uniswap V2 clones, monitor market activity, and execute trades.

Dex Dashboard Demo

Covalent also provides an easy-to-use code template that showcases the XY=K suite of Covalent API endpoints powering a multi-chain DEX dashboard. The live demo features:

  • Both blockchain and DEX selectors

  • A DEX token summary

  • A DEX market sentiment and socials summary

  • Details of the asset pairs traded on the DEX

To use, simply fork the template and change the following settings in the src/config.js folder:

  • Your Covalent API key

  • Dashboard title

  • Dashboard header banner

User Spotlight

The following are just a few examples of projects currently using Covalent’s xy=k endpoints:

ProjectUse CaseUsing Covalent Since
SpiritswapA DEX on FantomJan 2022
The Easy CompanyA Web3 social walletJan 2022
ShapeshiftA community-owned DeFi platformJan 2022
TokenTaxCrypto tax softwareMar 2020

As the DeFi ecosystem continues to mature, we can expect innovative solutions that address the limitations of the xy=k model and cater to the diverse needs of users. One innovative approach to improving capital efficiency is the concentrated liquidity concept introduced by Uniswap V3. Instead of distributing liquidity evenly across a price range, concentrated liquidity allows liquidity providers to allocate their assets to specific price ranges.

Image source: Yin, Jimmy & Ren, Mac. (2021). On Liquidity Mining for Uniswap v3.

In this chart, the liquidity is concentrated in the price range [P𝑎, P𝑏]. This results in deeper liquidity and lower slippage for trades within those ranges, ultimately leading to more efficient use of capital. Given that Uniswap V3 has recently become open source, we can expect more AMMs to adopt concentrated liquidity models or similar innovations.

Additionally, cross-chain functionality is becoming increasingly important (E.g. Thorchain) as well as advanced financial products (E.g. dYdX) and derivatives like options, futures and leveraged trading.

Overall, as the DeFi ecosystem continues to evolve, we can expect several of these developments to shape the future of Automated Market Makers (AMMs) and their underlying algorithms.


And there you have it! We've journeyed through the DeFi realm, unveiling the intricacies of xy=k and its impact on decentralized trading through Uniswap V2 and its myriad of clones. As the open-source nature of Uniswap continues to inspire new innovations and Covalent's API endpoints provide invaluable data for developers, the possibilities for DeFi applications are virtually limitless. Whether you're a DeFi veteran or just beginning to explore this brave new world, there's never been a more exciting time to dive into the realm of automated market makers and decentralized finance. So gear up, and let your DeFi imagination soar!